[转载]BackgroundWorker原理剖析 - ProJKY - 博客园

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[转载]BackgroundWorker原理剖析 – ProJKY – 博客园.

BackgroundWorker类位于System.ComponentModel命名空间下,主要用来异步执行一个长时间的操作,然后,在完成事件中安全更新UI的控件属性。UI中的控件是不允许非创建该控件的线程修改的。典型用法如下:

BackgroundWorker m_worker = new BackgroundWorker();
// 设置支持进度报告、异步取消功能,默认都为false
m_worker.WorkerReportsProgress = true;
m_worker.WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;

// 绑定事件
m_worker.DoWork += m_worker_DoWork;
m_worker.ProgressChanged += m_worker_ProgressChanged;
m_worker.RunWorkerCompleted += m_worker_RunWorkerCompleted;

void m_worker_RunWorkerCompleted(object sender, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e) {
if (e.Cancelled == true) {
// 处理取消
return;
} else if (e.Error != null) {
// 处理异常
return;
}

// 在UI中显示结果
// txtBox.Text = e.Result.ToString();
}

void m_worker_ProgressChanged(object sender, ProgressChangedEventArgs e) {
//progressBar.Value = e.ProgressPercentage;
}

void m_worker_DoWork(object sender, DoWorkEventArgs e) {
BackgroundWorker sendWorker = sender as BackgroundWorker;

for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
// 做异步工作。。。。

// 报告进度
sendWorker.ReportProgress(i);

// 请求取消工作内容
if (sendWorker.CancellationPending == true) {
e.Cancel = true;
return;
}
}

// 可选,设置异步工作结果
e.Result = GetResultData();
}

它的实现原理最重要的只有两点:

一点是用异步委托间接使用线程池执行长时间的操作;

另外一点是通过AsyncOperationManager和AsyncOperation对调用RunWorkerAsync的线程SynchronizationContext进行抽象;

BackgroundWorker的源码参见 http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/ComponentModel/BackgroundWorker.cs.html

首先从它的构造函数开始:

private delegate void WorkerThreadStartDelegate(object argument);

private AsyncOperation asyncOperation = null;
private readonly WorkerThreadStartDelegate threadStart;
private readonly SendOrPostCallback operationCompleted;
private readonly SendOrPostCallback progressReporter;

public BackgroundWorker()
{
threadStart = new WorkerThreadStartDelegate(WorkerThreadStart);
operationCompleted = new SendOrPostCallback(AsyncOperationCompleted);
progressReporter = new SendOrPostCallback(ProgressReporter);
}

定义了一个私有的委托类型WorkerThreadStartDelegate,以便于在该委托类型对象上直接调用BaginInvoke到线程池执行委托。SendOrPostCallback 是方便在UI线程(本质是调用RunWorkAsync时捕获的当前线程同步上下文对象,为了容易理解,就叫它UI线程)上执行回调而创建的。而asyncOperation则通过Post方法在UI线程上异步来执行SendOrPostCallback委托。

在对DoWork添加事件后,需要调用RunWorkerAsync,有两个重载,但我们只关注最后一个带参数的:

public void RunWorkerAsync(object argument)
{
if (isRunning)
{
throw new InvalidOperationException(SR.GetString(SR.BackgroundWorker_WorkerAlreadyRunning));
}

isRunning = true;
cancellationPending = false;

asyncOperation = AsyncOperationManager.CreateOperation(null);
threadStart.BeginInvoke(argument,
null,
null);
}

其实,asyncOperation = AsyncOperationManager.CreateOperation(null);这一行代码,等同于下面的代码:

if (SynchronizationContext.Current == null) {
SynchronizationContext.SetSynchronizationContext(new SynchronizationContext());
}
SynchronizationContext currentContext = SynchronizationContext.Current;
asyncOperation = AsyncOperation.CreateOperation(null, currentContext)

简单来说,就是获得当前的SynchronizationContext的对象,如果不存在,则创建一个默认的(基于线程池实现的)。并让asyncOperation拥有SynchronizationContext的引用。

在.NET中,有很多种SynchronizationContext的子类,比如Winform里面的WindowsFormsSynchronizationContext类,WPF里面的DispatcherSynchronizationContext类,ASP.NET里面的AspNetSynchronizationContext类。重点是,当在Winform的UI线程中访问SynchronizationContext.Current属性,获得的就是WindowsFormsSynchronizationContext的对象。

那么,最终,AsyncOperation的Post方法,就是直接调用SynchronizationContext的Post方法,来实现在UI中回调的目的。


public void Post(SendOrPostCallback d, object arg)
{
VerifyNotCompleted();
VerifyDelegateNotNull(d);
syncContext.Post(d, arg);
}

还有一点,threadStart.BeginInvoke会用线程池中的线程执行类似如下的代码:

object workerResult = null;
Exception error = null;
bool cancelled = false;

try
{
DoWorkEventArgs doWorkArgs = new DoWorkEventArgs(argument);
DoWorkEventHandler handler = (DoWorkEventHandler)(Events[doWorkKey]);
if (handler != null)
{
handler(this, doWorkArgs);
}
if (doWorkArgs.Cancel)
{
cancelled = true;
}
else
{
workerResult = doWorkArgs.Result;
}
}
catch (Exception exception)
{
error = exception;
}

RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e =
new RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs(workerResult, error, cancelled);

asyncOperation.PostOperationCompleted(operationCompleted, e);

其中,对DoWork事件的声明如下:

private static readonly object doWorkKey = new object();

public event DoWorkEventHandler DoWork{
add{
this.Events.AddHandler(doWorkKey, value);
}
remove{
this.Events.RemoveHandler(doWorkKey, value);
}
}

Events是从Component下派生来的protected EventHandlerList对象。

从BackgroundWorker的实现可以看出,它的实现是普遍性的,并不一定要用在Winform或者WPF中。

本文引用的源码参考列表可以从扣丁格鲁上查看。

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/ComponentModel/BackgroundWorker.cs.html

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/ComponentModel/AsyncOperation.cs.html

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/ComponentModel/AsyncOperationManager.cs.html

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/Threading/SynchronizationContext.cs.html

 

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/Windows/Forms/WindowsFormsSynchronizationContext.cs.html

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/Windows/Threading/DispatcherSynchronizationContext.cs.html

http://www.projky.com/dotnet/4.5.1/System/Web/AspNetSynchronizationContext.cs.html

 

关于基于事件的异步编程设计模式EAP更多参考请见http://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/hkasytyf(v=vs.110).aspx

版权归博客园和作者共有。.NET类库源码参考 扣丁格鲁 www.projky.com,转载请注明出处。
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