深入理解GatewayWorker框架 - 简书

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来源: 深入理解GatewayWorker框架 – 简书

序言

本文只是结合GatewayWorker和Workerman的官方文档和源码,深入了解执行过程。以便更深入的了解并使用

GatewayWorker基于Workerman开发的一个项目框架。Register进程负责保存Gateway进程和BusinessWorker进程的地址,建立两者的连接。Gateway进程负责维持客户端连接,并转发客户端的数据给BusinessWorker进程处理,BusinessWorker进程负责处理实际的业务逻辑(默认调用Events.php处理业务),并将结果推送给对应的客户端。Register、Gateway、BusinessWorker进程都是继承Worker类实现各自的功能,所以了解GatewayWorker框架的内部执行过程,需要优先理解Worker的内容

GatewayWorker目录结构

├── Applications // 这里是所有开发者应用项目
│   └── YourApp  // 其中一个项目目录,目录名可以自定义
│       ├── Events.php // 开发者只需要关注这个文件
│       ├── start_gateway.php // gateway进程启动脚本,包括端口        号等设置
│       ├── start_businessworker.php // businessWorker进程启动  脚本
│       └── start_register.php // 注册服务启动脚本
│
├── start.php // 全局启动脚本,此脚本会依次加载Applications/项目/start_*.php启动脚本
│
└── vendor    // GatewayWorker框架和Workerman框架源码目  录,此目录开发者不用关心

start.php 为启动脚本,在该脚本中,统一加载start_gateway.php start_businessworker.php start_register.php进程脚本,最后通过Worker::runAll();运行所有服务。

工作原理

1、Register、Gateway、BusinessWorker进程启动
2、Gateway、BusinessWorker进程启动后向Register服务进程发起长连接注册自己
3、Register服务收到Gateway的注册后,把所有Gateway的通讯地址保存在内存中
4、Register服务收到BusinessWorker的注册后,把内存中所有的Gateway的通讯地址发给BusinessWorker
5、BusinessWorker进程得到所有的Gateway内部通讯地址后尝试连接Gateway
6、如果运行过程中有新的Gateway服务注册到Register(一般是分布式部署加机器),则将新的Gateway内部通讯地址列表将广播给所有BusinessWorker,BusinessWorker收到后建立连接
7 、如果有Gateway下线,则Register服务会收到通知,会将对应的内部通讯地址删除,然后广播新的内部通讯地址列表给所有BusinessWorker,BusinessWorker不再连接下线的Gateway
8、至此Gateway与BusinessWorker通过Register已经建立起长连接
9、客户端的事件及数据全部由Gateway转发给BusinessWorker处理,BusinessWorker默认调用Events.php中的onConnect onMessage onClose处理业务逻辑。
10、BusinessWorker的业务逻辑入口全部在Events.php中,包括onWorkerStart进程启动事件(进程事件)、onConnect连接事件(客户端事件)、onMessage消息事件(客户端事件)、onClose连接关闭事件(客户端事件)、onWorkerStop进程退出事件(进程事件)

1 Register、Gateway、BusinessWorker进程启动

项目根目录下的start.php 为启动脚本,在该脚本中,加载start_gateway.php start_businessworker.php start_register.php进程脚本,完成各个服务的Worker初始化:

// 加载所有Applications/*/start.php,以便启动所有服务
foreach(glob(__DIR__.'/Applications/*/start*.php') as $start_file)
{
    require_once $start_file;
}

最后通过Worker::runAll();运行所有服务。

// 运行所有服务
Worker::runAll();
运行所有服务,先看一遍runAll()方法的执行内容

public static function runAll()
{
    // 检查运行环境
    self::checkSapiEnv();
    //初始化环境变量
    self::init();
    // 解析命令
    self::parseCommand();
    // 尝试以守护进程模式运行
    self::daemonize();
    // 初始化所有worker实例,主要是监听端口
    self::initWorkers();
    // 初始化所有信号处理函数
    self::installSignal();
    // 保存主进程pid
    self::saveMasterPid();
    // 展示启动界面
    self::displayUI();
    // 创建子进程(worker进程),然后给每个子进程绑定loop循环监听事件tcp
    self::forkWorkers();
    // 尝试重定向标准输入输出
    self::resetStd();
    // 监控所有子进程(worker进程)
    self::monitorWorkers();
}

self::init()初始化环境变量中,有以下部分代码,保存$_idMap从PID映射到工作进程ID

// Init data for worker id.
   self::initId();
protected static function initId()
 {
   foreach (self::$_workers as $worker_id => $worker) {
       $new_id_map = array();
       for($key = 0; $key < $worker->count; $key++) {
          $new_id_map[$key] = isset(self::$_idMap[$worker_id]      [$key]) ? self::$_idMap[$worker_id][$key] : 0;
       }
       self::$_idMap[$worker_id] = $new_id_map;
   }
 }

self::forkWorkers()方法通过循环self::$_workers数组,fork各自worker的count数量的进程。然后通过调用

$worker->run();

运行当前worker实例,在run方法中通过

  if (!self::$globalEvent) {
       $event_loop_class = self::getEventLoopName();
      self::$globalEvent = new $event_loop_class;
      // Register a listener to be notified when server socket is ready to read.
       if ($this->_socketName) {
           if ($this->transport !== 'udp') {
               self::$globalEvent->add($this->_mainSocket, EventInterface::EV_READ,
                   array($this, 'acceptConnection'));
           } else {
               self::$globalEvent->add($this->_mainSocket, EventInterface::EV_READ,
                   array($this, 'acceptUdpConnection'));
           }
       }

获取一个当前可用的事件轮询方式,然后根据当前的协议类型添加一个监听到事件轮询中
然后,尝试出发当前进程模型的onWorkerStart回调,此回调会在Gateway类以及BusinessWorker类中都会定义,代码

 if ($this->onWorkerStart) {
       try {
           call_user_func($this->onWorkerStart, $this);
       } catch (\Exception $e) {
           self::log($e);
           // Avoid rapid infinite loop exit.
           sleep(1);
           exit(250);
       } catch (\Error $e) {
           self::log($e);
           // Avoid rapid infinite loop exit.
           sleep(1);
           exit(250);
       }
   }

最后,执行事件的循环等待socket事件,处理读写等操作,代码

 // Main loop.
   self::$globalEvent->loop();

以上是runAll()方法的部分内容,会在了解GatewayWorker的工作原理的时候用到

2.1 Gateway进程向Register服务进程发起长连接注册自己

初始化Gateway

$gateway = new Gateway("text://0.0.0.0:8383");

在Gateway类中重写run方法,当调用runAll()方法启动进程时,fork进程之后,运行worker实例的时候,会调用到此重写的run方法

public function run()
{
    // 保存用户的回调,当对应的事件发生时触发
    $this->_onWorkerStart = $this->onWorkerStart;
    $this->onWorkerStart  = array($this, 'onWorkerStart');
    // 保存用户的回调,当对应的事件发生时触发
    $this->_onConnect = $this->onConnect;
    $this->onConnect  = array($this, 'onClientConnect');
    // onMessage禁止用户设置回调
    $this->onMessage = array($this, 'onClientMessage');
    // 保存用户的回调,当对应的事件发生时触发
    $this->_onClose = $this->onClose;
    $this->onClose  = array($this, 'onClientClose');
    // 保存用户的回调,当对应的事件发生时触发
    $this->_onWorkerStop = $this->onWorkerStop;
    $this->onWorkerStop  = array($this, 'onWorkerStop');
    $this->_startTime = time();
    // 运行父方法
    parent::run();
}

定义了$this->onWorkerStart回调,

$this->onWorkerStart  = array($this, 'onWorkerStart');

 

 

执行到Worker类中的run()方法时,被触发。即,上边提到的

Worker脚本中的run方法

调用Gateway类中的onWorkerStart方法,代码

public function onWorkerStart()
{
    $this->lanPort = $this->startPort + $this->id;
    if ($this->pingInterval > 0) {
        $timer_interval = $this->pingNotResponseLimit > 0 ? $this->pingInterval / 2 : $this->pingInterval;
        Timer::add($timer_interval, array($this, 'ping'));
    }
    if ($this->lanIp !== '127.0.0.1') {
        Timer::add(self::PERSISTENCE_CONNECTION_PING_INTERVAL, array($this, 'pingBusinessWorker'));
    }
    if (strpos($this->registerAddress, '127.0.0.1') !== 0) {
        Timer::add(self::PERSISTENCE_CONNECTION_PING_INTERVAL, array($this, 'pingRegister'));
    }
    if (!class_exists('\Protocols\GatewayProtocol')) {
        class_alias('GatewayWorker\Protocols\GatewayProtocol', 'Protocols\GatewayProtocol');
    }
    // 初始化 gateway 内部的监听,用于监听 worker 的连接已经连接上发来的数据
    $this->_innerTcpWorker = new Worker("GatewayProtocol://{$this->lanIp}:{$this->lanPort}");
    $this->_innerTcpWorker->listen();
    // 重新设置自动加载根目录
    Autoloader::setRootPath($this->_autoloadRootPath);
    // 设置内部监听的相关回调
    $this->_innerTcpWorker->onMessage = array($this, 'onWorkerMessage');
    $this->_innerTcpWorker->onConnect = array($this, 'onWorkerConnect');
    $this->_innerTcpWorker->onClose   = array($this, 'onWorkerClose');
    // 注册 gateway 的内部通讯地址,worker 去连这个地址,以便 gateway 与 worker 之间建立起 TCP 长连接
    $this->registerAddress();
    if ($this->_onWorkerStart) {
        call_user_func($this->_onWorkerStart, $this);
    }
}

$this->startPort : 内部通讯起始端口,假如$gateway->count=4,起始端口为4000,可在gateway启动脚本中自定义
$this->id : 基于worker实例分配的进程编号,当前从0开始,根据count自增。在fork进程的时候生成

Worker.php

$this->_innerTcpWorker:用于监听 worker 的连接已经连接上发来的数据。在工作原理5中,BusinessWorker进程得到所有的Gateway内部通讯地址后尝试连接Gateway以及其他两者之间的通信(连接,消息,关闭)会被调用
$this->registerAddress(): 代码中$this->registerAddress是在start_gateway.php初始化Gateway类之后定义的。该端口是Register进程所监听。此处异步的向Register进程发送数据,存储当前 Gateway 的内部通信地址 

public function registerAddress()
{
    $address                   = $this->lanIp . ':' . $this->lanPort;
    $this->_registerConnection = new AsyncTcpConnection("text://{$this->registerAddress}");
    $this->_registerConnection->send('{"event":"gateway_connect", "address":"' . $address . '", "secret_key":"' . $this->secretKey . '"}');
    $this->_registerConnection->onClose = array($this, 'onRegisterConnectionClose');
    $this->_registerConnection->connect();
}

$this->lanIp: Gateway所在服务器的内网IP

2.2 BusinessWorker进程向Register服务进程发起长连接注册自己

BusinessWorker类中同样重写run方法,定义了$this->onWorkerStart

 public function run()
 {
    $this->_onWorkerStart  = $this->onWorkerStart;
    $this->_onWorkerReload = $this->onWorkerReload;
    $this->_onWorkerStop = $this->onWorkerStop;
    $this->onWorkerStop   = array($this, 'onWorkerStop');
    $this->onWorkerStart   = array($this, 'onWorkerStart');
    $this->onWorkerReload  = array($this, 'onWorkerReload');
    parent::run();
 }

执行Worker类中的run方法,触发BusinessWorker中的onWorkerStart

protected function onWorkerStart()
{
    if (!class_exists('\Protocols\GatewayProtocol')) {
        class_alias('GatewayWorker\Protocols\GatewayProtocol', 'Protocols\GatewayProtocol');
    }
    $this->connectToRegister();
    \GatewayWorker\Lib\Gateway::setBusinessWorker($this);
    \GatewayWorker\Lib\Gateway::$secretKey = $this->secretKey;
    if ($this->_onWorkerStart) {
        call_user_func($this->_onWorkerStart, $this);
    }
    
    if (is_callable($this->eventHandler . '::onWorkerStart')) {
        call_user_func($this->eventHandler . '::onWorkerStart', $this);
    }

    if (function_exists('pcntl_signal')) {
        // 业务超时信号处理
        pcntl_signal(SIGALRM, array($this, 'timeoutHandler'), false);
    } else {
        $this->processTimeout = 0;
    }

    // 设置回调
    if (is_callable($this->eventHandler . '::onConnect')) {
        $this->_eventOnConnect = $this->eventHandler . '::onConnect';
    }

    if (is_callable($this->eventHandler . '::onMessage')) {
        $this->_eventOnMessage = $this->eventHandler . '::onMessage';
    } else {
        echo "Waring: {$this->eventHandler}::onMessage is not callable\n";
    }

    if (is_callable($this->eventHandler . '::onClose')) {
        $this->_eventOnClose = $this->eventHandler . '::onClose';
    }

    // 如果Register服务器不在本地服务器,则需要保持心跳
    if (strpos($this->registerAddress, '127.0.0.1') !== 0) {
        Timer::add(self::PERSISTENCE_CONNECTION_PING_INTERVAL, array($this, 'pingRegister'));
    }
}

通过connectToRegister方法,发送数据到Register进程,连接服务注册中心

public function connectToRegister()
{
    $this->_registerConnection = new AsyncTcpConnection("text://{$this->registerAddress}");
    $this->_registerConnection->send('{"event":"worker_connect","secret_key":"' . $this->secretKey . '"}');
    $this->_registerConnection->onClose   = array($this, 'onRegisterConnectionClose');
    $this->_registerConnection->onMessage = array($this, 'onRegisterConnectionMessage');
    $this->_registerConnection->connect();
}

3 Register服务收到Gateway的注册后,把所有的Gateway的通讯地址保存在内存中

在Register类中,重写了run方法,定义了当前的

     $this->onConnect = array($this, 'onConnect');
    // 设置 onMessage 回调
    $this->onMessage = array($this, 'onMessage');

    // 设置 onClose 回调
    $this->onClose = array($this, 'onClose');

三个属性,当Register启动的进程收到消息时,会触发onMessage方法

 public function onMessage($connection, $buffer)
{
    // 删除定时器
    Timer::del($connection->timeout_timerid);
    $data       = @json_decode($buffer, true);
    if (empty($data['event'])) {
        $error = "Bad request for Register service. Request info(IP:".$connection->getRemoteIp().", Request Buffer:$buffer). See http://wiki.workerman.net/Error4 for detail";
        Worker::log($error);
        return $connection->close($error);
    }
    $event      = $data['event'];
    $secret_key = isset($data['secret_key']) ? $data['secret_key'] : '';
    // 开始验证
    switch ($event) {
        // 是 gateway 连接
        case 'gateway_connect':
            if (empty($data['address'])) {
                echo "address not found\n";
                return $connection->close();
            }
            if ($secret_key !== $this->secretKey) {
                Worker::log("Register: Key does not match ".var_export($secret_key, true)." !== ".var_export($this->secretKey, true));
                return $connection->close();
            }
            $this->_gatewayConnections[$connection->id] = $data['address'];
            $this->broadcastAddresses();
            break;
        // 是 worker 连接
        case 'worker_connect':
            if ($secret_key !== $this->secretKey) {
                Worker::log("Register: Key does not match ".var_export($secret_key, true)." !== ".var_export($this->secretKey, true));
                return $connection->close();
            }
            $this->_workerConnections[$connection->id] = $connection;
            $this->broadcastAddresses($connection);
            break;
        case 'ping':
            break;
        default:
            Worker::log("Register unknown event:$event IP: ".$connection->getRemoteIp()." Buffer:$buffer. See http://wiki.workerman.net/Error4 for detail");
            $connection->close();
    }
}

当$event = ‘gateway_connect’时,是Gateway发来的注册消息,保存到$this->_gatewayConnections数组中,在通过broadcastAddresses方法将当前$this->_gatewayConnections中所有的Gatewat通讯地址转发给所有BusinessWorker进程

4 Register服务收到BusinessWorker的注册后,把内存中所有的Gateway的通讯地址发给BusinessWorker

 

 

同第3步中,Register类收到BusinessWorker的注册时,会触发onMessage方法中的worker_connect,case选项。

image.png

同时,将当前worker连接加入到$_workerConnections数组中,在通过broadcastAddresses方法将当前$this->_gatewayConnections中所有的Gatewat通讯地址转发给所有BusinessWorker进程。

5 BusinessWorker进程得到所有的Gateway内部通讯地址后尝试连接Gateway

在BusinessWoker类的启动中,通过重写run方法,定义的启动onWorkerStart方法中,通过connectToRegister方法注册服务中心的同时,也定义了onMessage匿名函数,用于接收消息回调。

$this->_registerConnection->onMessage = array($this, 'onRegisterConnectionMessage');

即,当注册中心发来消息时候,回调到此处

 public function onRegisterConnectionMessage($register_connection, $data)
{
    $data = json_decode($data, true);
    if (!isset($data['event'])) {
        echo "Received bad data from Register\n";
        return;
    }
    $event = $data['event'];
    switch ($event) {
        case 'broadcast_addresses':
            if (!is_array($data['addresses'])) {
                echo "Received bad data from Register. Addresses empty\n";
                return;
            }
            $addresses               = $data['addresses'];
            $this->_gatewayAddresses = array();
            foreach ($addresses as $addr) {
                $this->_gatewayAddresses[$addr] = $addr;
            }
            $this->checkGatewayConnections($addresses);
            break;
        default:
            echo "Receive bad event:$event from Register.\n";
    }
}

其中Register类发来的数据是

$data   = array(
        'event'     => 'broadcast_addresses',
        'addresses' => array_unique(array_values($this->_gatewayConnections)),
    );

这个时候,就会通过checkGatewayConnections方法检查gateway的这些通信端口是否都已经连接,在通过tryToConnectGateway方法尝试连接gateway的这些内部通信地址

6 Gateway进程收到BusinessWorker进程的连接消息

同样,在Gateway进程启动的时候,触发的onWorkerStart方法中,也定义了一个内部通讯的onWorkerMessage

$this->_innerTcpWorker->onMessage = array($this, 'onWorkerMessage');

由此来接收BusinessWorker进程发来的连接消息,部分代码

public function onWorkerMessage($connection, $data)
{
    $cmd = $data['cmd'];
    if (empty($connection->authorized) && $cmd !== GatewayProtocol::CMD_WORKER_CONNECT && $cmd !== GatewayProtocol::CMD_GATEWAY_CLIENT_CONNECT) {
        self::log("Unauthorized request from " . $connection->getRemoteIp() . ":" . $connection->getRemotePort());
        return $connection->close();
    }
    switch ($cmd) {
        // BusinessWorker连接Gateway
        case GatewayProtocol::CMD_WORKER_CONNECT:
            $worker_info = json_decode($data['body'], true);
            if ($worker_info['secret_key'] !== $this->secretKey) {
                self::log("Gateway: Worker key does not match ".var_export($this->secretKey, true)." !== ". var_export($this->secretKey));
                return $connection->close();
            }
            $key = $connection->getRemoteIp() . ':' . $worker_info['worker_key'];
            // 在一台服务器上businessWorker->name不能相同
            if (isset($this->_workerConnections[$key])) {
                self::log("Gateway: Worker->name conflict. Key:{$key}");
        $connection->close();
                return;
            }
    $connection->key = $key;
            $this->_workerConnections[$key] = $connection;
            $connection->authorized = true;
            return;
        // GatewayClient连接Gateway

将worker的进程连接保存到$this->_workerConnections[$key] = $connection;

7 Gateway进程收到客户端的连接,消息时,会通过Gateway转发给worker处理

 // Gateway类的run方法中定义此属性
 $this->onMessage = array($this, 'onClientMessage');
 
 // 收到客户端消息的时候出发此函数
 public function onClientMessage($connection, $data)
 {
    $connection->pingNotResponseCount = -1;
    $this->sendToWorker(GatewayProtocol::CMD_ON_MESSAGE, $connection, $data);
 }

在sendToWorker方法中,将数据发给worker进程处理

作者:AntFoot
链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/47a9f2f0c18b
来源:简书
著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。

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